Lost Language, Lost Liberalism

A review of the changes 1880-1940 to the central semantics of liberal civilization.

The liberalism that emerged particularly during the 18th and 19th centuries has been the jewel of western civilization. The liberal discourse of the liberal era featured a number of central words. Many of the central words became confused especially in the period 1880 to 1940. The central words are shown in the left side panel.


If you are visiting for the first time, begin by reading the introduction.


The guide explains how material on this site is organized.


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To recommend material for the site or to offer correx, email Dan Klein at dklein@gmu.edu.


4L is authored by Daniel B. Klein, Professor of Economics, JIN Chair at the Mercatus Center, George Mason University, Associate Fellow of the Ratio Institute; email: dklein@gmu.edu

Quotations compiled by Ryan Daza & Daniel B. Klein